The memory of Zhang Ailing
Originally named Zhang Ying Registration, pseudonym Liang Jing, native of Hebei, Rich, was born in Shanghai, she is a famous Qing Dynasty «clear school» on behalf of Zhang Peilun granddaughter, granddaughter of heavy Li Qing minister, well-born feminist. Professional writing career began in 1942. Shanghai 40’s famous female writer, air jordan shoewriting good at psychological analysis. Went to Hong Kong in 1952. Settle the United States in 1966, died after the apartment.
Eileen Chang, the Chinese translation of English name, when her mother rushed her to school since the application’s name, has become one of modern jordan 23 shoesChinese literature in the history of the name with a Knife Carving been like, despite the passage of time, changing times, the most ordinary Chinese woman’s name, along with her strange and beautiful but delicate masterpiece, spread to today, and gradually the situation but in showing her huge magnificent charm.
Qing Zhang Ailing’s grandfather was originally jordan shoes suppliera famous minister Zhang Peilun, and her grandmother Li Ju coupling is the daughter of Empress Li confidant hall. Generation could be to her parents, family financial situation is already completely ruined. Father is a son of Yi Shao-based mother is a stylish new women. 3 years old living with his parents in Tianjin, Zhang Ailing, a short happy childhood. Elegance all jordan shoesto the text by father’s influence will Ailing small infants, had given her some classical literature of the Enlightenment, encouraged her literary hobby. Also by her mother admired Western culture, life, fun and artistic taste are Western-oriented. But the good time, my father married a concubine, the mother not only bravely out of the family’s cage, but also the courage to studybuy jordan shoes abroad, together with the aunt, while the young Eileen Chang, is the loss of maternal love, we will still bear the old family dirty. Therefore, the Eileen Chang was always in literary creation «decline in the culture, in a chaotic world civilization » as the cultural background.
Eileen Chang is a gifted children, 6 years into the private school, back in the poetry readings by the same time, began writing fiction. If the first jordans shoestory was a family tragedy, one can see the influence of family environment on her, then write a second novel suicide girl romance story, was amply demonstrated her literary creativity. In addition, she wrote an article entitled «happy village» similar to the utopian novel, and placed her on the illusion of the future. 1927, 7-year-old Eileen Chang with the family back to Shanghai, and soon the mother returned, she was learning to draw with his mother, piano and English. Eileen Chang on the color, notes and text are very sensitive, she said: «I am a strange girl, childhood was also regarded as a genius, in addition to the development of my talent has no existence outside the michael jordan shoesgoal. … … The age of nine, I hesitate the do not know music or art should be chosen to make my lifelong career. watched a video describing the poor painter, I cried, and decided to do a pianist, in the magnificent concert hall . » Therefore, women are afraid of Zhang Ai poor, but poor for the day, no way out at the time the case of women, are choosing marriage as their way of struggle and goals.
Ailing from the early forties literary career. In 1943, Chang Ai-ling Zhou Shoujuan editor of the «Violet» published «Chen Xiangxie first Incense», the blockbuster (which, she 23 years old, and published ten years ago, Cao Yu, «Thunderstorm» the same age). Since then, she was unstoppable revenue in two years, her «Violet», «Vientiane», «Magazine» and «Heaven and Earth,» «Ancient and Modern» and other types of publications issued almost her life all the most important novels and prose, including fiction, «Chen Xiangxie second Incense» (May 1943), «Jasmine Tea» (June 1943), «Heart Sutra» (July 1943), «blockade» ( August 1943), «Fallen City» (September 1943), «Golden Lock» (October 1943), «tiles» (October 1943), «when the young» (1944 1 month), «Flower Withers» (February 1944), «Hong Luan Jubilee» (May 1944), «Red Rose and White Rose» (June 1944), «A Little Autumn Osmanthus steam» (1944 in September), «and» (November 1944), and the prose «in the end of Shanghai» and «foreigners look at Peking opera and other», «mind changing», «Apartment Life Ji Qu», «Ashes I recorded» «On Women», «On Writing», «a woman with the car», «their article,» «Whisper,» «On Painting», «On Music» and so on. Evaluation of old age in Chinese literature and «Dream of Red Mansions» research. In fact, Zhang Ailing in the fifties her most important writing has been completed, including «Fallen City», «Golden Lock», «red earth is Love,» «Eighteen Springs» and so on. Her work, mainly in Shanghai, Nanjing and Hong Kong as the story scenes in the desolate and lonely hearts decadent city of extravagance, Romance of the fall and prosperity.
In Zhang Ailing’s these works, most representative of her style when the number of «Fallen.» «Fallen» is written over a pair of smart men and women is how to love the Zi-chu must be better than, the global utility, and finally because of the fall of Hong Kong, made all the share of sophisticated marriage. This is a Hong Kong-style ‘Legend ‘ story, but reflect that in a chaotic world without a little human feeling totally innocent, makes a steady and regulated sex was actually insurance but insurance ‘Legend ‘ forces, which novel description of human nature is deter indifference, as if from a hand of all vicissitudes, its art more mature and beautiful language called love stories in modern Chinese classic. «Zhang Ailing’s critics at the time these works have been awarded:» We are harvesting one of the most beautiful literature. «This is her soul with the soul to read from.
Ailing at the time of striking, but also the text not only in her beauty, her manners were also a few articles as a «Legend», allow people to stay in transmission has become a literary anecdotes. Eileen Chang who saw the first plane would have surprised her dress. It’s hard to describe with words the strange appearance of her, but her clothing designs, color makes a difference. Eileen Chang is not only new clothes ancient strange out in matching colors also like to use a distinctive color but varied in control. Lemon yellow, red, light green, pink, blue Shihlin are often used to do her clothing color. Can imagine so well the colors match with the bounds of styles, how amazing will produce results. But Zhang Ailing’s attitude has been smooth, Department panic chaos, its own way to dress according to their wishes to attend various activities and social. From the concept of consciousness, her steadfast and ultra-conventional.
In the history of modern Chinese literature, Eileen Chang occupies a important position. Her work, whether fiction or essays, almost all of Shanghai, Hong Kong and other major cities as the background. She particularly sensitive to urban life in Daya, Vulgar, a unique perspective, a deviant brushstrokes, is pondering a twist.
1961, Professor Xia Zhiqing’s «History of Modern Chinese Fiction,» Zeng Yi a chapter on Eileen Chang, and her masters such as Lu Xun and Mao Dun equal footing, not only affirmed the Eileen Chang’s own, more in the future, «Xue» research laid the foundation.
Ailing 80 to the nineties of the last century literary hot continent, she not only changed people an important part of modern literary history knowledge, but also affected the contemporary literature, a large number of young writers were unanimous on Her interest took place and in their left clear traces of creation. September 1995, the death of Zhang Ailing in overseas, «Zhang Ailing fever» has set off, many research monographs and biographies have been published in Eileen Chang’s book is also printed by the sporadic gradually developed into more adult series. At present China has not the complete works, but Hong Kong is not difficult to find Crown Edition Collection was.
But a problem has not caused great importance to study circles: Eileen Chang has been split into two, one 40 Eileen Chang’s short-lived, after the first fifty years wandering abroad are willing to be lonely Eileen Chang. China is talking about more limited in the former Eileen Chang short story and prose essays, and Eileen Chang was 50 years after the very inadequate attention. Although Chang in Shanghai in 1950, according to her, «also reported» a long serial «18 Spring» Rewriting «Eighteen Springs» onto the screen recently, she moved to Hong Kong to Shanghai in 1952, settlers who died in the United States until the trail in some biography have frequently disclosed, but all of these, with a complete view of Zhang 50 years after creation, there are quite some distance.
This is mainly in Hong Kong in 1954, Chang completed two long «Younger» and «The red of Love» to obstruct.
Overes, the first of this two Hu Shih and Hsia book to review in private or public, who praises than criticisms, there are many insights, but also fully shown their own prejudices. If the overseas scholars concerned with bias in time these two ministers articles, mainland scholars because of their prejudice, they still do not want to face.
The winter of 1995, Eileen Chang’s death reached the mainland, Mr. Chen Zishan specifically to the newly discovered Ailing student assignments expose a set of «literary newspaper» as a commemoration of the mine on behalf of the talented woman. It shows at least one side of the people want a complete picture of Eileen Chang and his book, Love and wish the whole how strong the desire. Not only so, what is the reason for mentioning her in the fifties to the late creation of a direct relationship between the two long literary activities then?
So far our understanding of the Ailing, largely based on her 40 years of work, but Zhang’s creation does not stop the forties. Fifty years later, she works in addition to film scripts and English, just write in Chinese or in English, then translated into English first, and Major examples are there, «looks pretty», «18 Spring», «Lust, Caution «,» 54 Kingdoms «,» Maid, «» Younger «and» The red of Love. » Only works under 40 years to draw a conclusion about her, it very lightly.
«Younger,» «The red Love» The reason is not taken seriously, the reason being cut Eileen Chang, is located in the 40 years of essays on short stories and essays have been granted to pursue the ideal of life that contemporary middle-class literary precursor, causes not writer Eileen Chang is not the initiator of the re-discovery, such as CT Hsia generation, but the contemporary framework of a literary history and literary ideas at work.
Because the anti-political decisions on the allocation of the old and slip into a new political determinism, and political distance to all the works of pure art are zoned into the territory, where political borders are classified as non-artistic works territories, for example, Zhang 4 years on behalf of the novel has nothing to do with politics, and even gave a high evaluation of the higher, but 50 years later as the «Younger» «The red Love» and the like work with a clear political orientation, are all as bad publicity. This is overkill.
Over the years, literature and politics, has been interpreted as either the existing political-oriented mouthpiece, or against the existing political orientation — make another political mouthpiece. Whatever the case, all exclusive to subordinate political literature. This affiliation, whether or strong desire to break out to defend its people, are used to identify the literary and political, once stained, they must either promote or oppose the existing political orientation, no other could. Lu Xun in the correct year when the concept of ultra-leftist literature, told the American writer Sinclair’s famous «all art is propaganda,» further explanation: «Yes, all art is propaganda, but not all propaganda is art.» I think along his thoughts go also can be derived: all publicity is not necessarily that of non-literary, and all to avoid the creation of the political is also not necessarily true art.
Legendary writer Eileen Chang has now been on a bit «vulgar», and her literary achievements have also been a consensus among us can stand in the place of literary history. Her novels are two maverick consensus has not been. It has just enjoy her «Golden Lock», «Fallen» and other novels.
Basically do not know the other two novels of Zhang Ailing, «Younger» and «The red of Love.»
Yangko «and» The red Love «is Zhang Ailing’s representative, but by the mainland means that the» anti-communist novel «, the general neither published the works of Eileen Chang received the two novels, such as Anhui Literature and Art Publishing House’s» Collected Works of Zhang Ailing » (four volumes. In 1992 the first edition. gold Honda, the Green Code) is not received on the «Younger» and «The red of Love.» I get a chance when the «Younger» and «The red of Love» (first edition, Dalian Press, 1996. I do not know is not illegal publications?).
«The mainland government changed hands, sprinkling earth are complaining.» This is the beginning of the traditional anti-communist work. But the genius who like Eileen Chang, the novel is not the kind of typical of the natural pattern of Creation. All history is contemporary history. Very talented big words, always worth considering. «Younger» and «The red Love» gives us a new perspective, we see the other side of history, this side is not known by us.
Mr. Collingwood, «The red Love» and «Younger» to be negative.
But «The red Love» is a true reflection of a political party, destroy and control of human nature, individuals do not take shelter in front of the powerful political party place, there is no independent space and thought. The «Younger» is displayed when the land reform of violence and cruelty, and the resistance of the peasants. This undoubtedly runs counter to the mainstream ideology.
Mr. Collingwood’s article, «A Return to Nature», which deals with the «Younger» and «The red Love» held that: «Some foreign critics of» Younger «and» red earth is Love «was a flowery praise, tippler of Italy is not wine. They novels exposed the ‘iron curtain’ behind the dark, treasured. but this exposure is also a superficial and distorted, the reader appears in the mainland, only amused. Qingming the world will not suffer in silence. China is not heaven, but by no means hell. «Mr. Collingwood find the» funny «when I do not know what to say, China is certainly not paradise, but is not hell? just look at the» Cultural Revolution «and» Six * 4 incident » would know that is not human.
A sage once said: «By any means to a mandatory human transformed into a sacred world of practice, are doomed to go to the opposite, that is the real world into hell.» So, you can say the Novel you are not realistic.
Taiwanese writer Lung Ying-tai in her «Lung Ying-tai Comment novel» book has a «a touch of song — On Ailing » article. Lung Ying-tai said: «If Steinbeck’s» Grapes of Wrath «(early 1939 version) is still in the university as a classic in the English Department to discuss this thin,» Younger «on in our memories should have a distinguished position. Zhang Ailing’s many famous works — such as «Eighteen Springs» — but engaging romantic novels only, no depth at all. hint of «Younger», but definitely a «world class» works of art.
Lung Ying-tai also believe that: Instead of saying, «Younger» anti-communist, better to say «Younger» anti-persecution, persecution against any kind of system. «Younger,» the theme is a typical publicity materials, but on a mature understanding of human nature to its depths, the author’s skill to give it an independent artistic life. «Younger» is a land of life and death of each person’s a lament, is Zhang Ailing Chinese farmers established a small mass.
On «land reform in acts of violence» can refer to a famous writer Xiao Jun’s article. Xiao Jun in the late 40s had written the article said: «The resumption of the land to be sub-human, from the people of wealth, who dug the grain, or even bathe the family. Manchu though mixed, although in Japan heterogeneous, not end, Hu GCD also zai this heartless. «Another scholar Tang Xiaobing an essay,» Dialectics of violence: Re-reading «also talked about the» Storm «was originally the creation of original work in harsh circumstances of people playing varsity. Gradually, we all strange.
History will erase some of the intentionally or unintentionally, is «offensive» things, Eileen Chang’s «Younger» and «The red Love» will be familiar in China, «Chang» was downplayed or even erased. Revisit these two novels, intended to make you see a real Ailing, a «King Kong angry style» Zhang Ailing, Zhang Ailing so it may be complete.